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πα Ori (Al Taj ar Raaba)


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Reliability Checks on the Indo-US Stellar Spectral Library Using Artificial Neural Networks and Principal Component Analysis
The Indo-US coudé feed stellar spectral library (CFLIB) madeavailable to the astronomical community recently by Valdes et al. (2004,ApJS, 152, 251) contains spectra of 1273 stars in the spectral region3460 to 9464Å at a high resolution of 1Å (FWHM) and a widerange of spectral types. Cross-checking the reliability of this databaseis an important and desirable exercise since a number of stars in thisdatabase have no known spectral types and a considerable fraction ofstars has not so complete coverage in the full wavelength region of3460-9464Å resulting in gaps ranging from a few Å to severaltens of Å. We use an automated classification scheme based onArtificial Neural Networks (ANN) to classify all 1273 stars in thedatabase. In addition, principal component analysis (PCA) is carried outto reduce the dimensionality of the data set before the spectra areclassified by the ANN. Most importantly, we have successfullydemonstrated employment of a variation of the PCA technique to restorethe missing data in a sample of 300 stars out of the CFLIB.

Spitzer IRS Spectroscopy of IRAS-discovered Debris Disks
We have obtained Spitzer Space Telescope Infrared Spectrograph (IRS)5.5-35 μm spectra of 59 main-sequence stars that possess IRAS 60μm excess. The spectra of five objects possess spectral features thatare well-modeled using micron-sized grains and silicates withcrystalline mass fractions 0%-80%, consistent with T Tauri and HerbigAeBe stars. With the exception of η Crv, these objects are youngwith ages <=50 Myr. Our fits require the presence of a cool blackbodycontinuum, Tgr=80-200 K, in addition to hot, amorphous, andcrystalline silicates, Tgr=290-600 K, suggesting thatmultiple parent body belts are present in some debris disks, analogousto the asteroid and Kuiper belts in our solar system. The spectra forthe majority of objects are featureless, suggesting that the emittinggrains probably have radii a>10 μm. We have modeled the excesscontinua using a continuous disk with a uniform surface densitydistribution, expected if Poynting-Robertson and stellar wind drag arethe dominant grain removal processes, and using a single-temperatureblackbody, expected if the dust is located in a narrow ring around thestar. The IRS spectra of many objects are better modeled with asingle-temperature blackbody, suggesting that the disks possess innerholes. The distribution of grain temperatures, based on our blackbodyfits, peaks at Tgr=110-120 K. Since the timescale for icesublimation of micron-sized grains with Tgr>110 K is afraction of a Myr, the lack of warmer material may be explained if thegrains are icy. If planets dynamically clear the central portions ofdebris disks, then the frequency of planets around other stars isprobably high. We estimate that the majority of debris disk systemspossess parent body masses, MPB<1 M⊕. Thelow inferred parent body masses suggest that planet formation is anefficient process.Based on observations with the NASA Spitzer Space Telescope, which isoperated by the California Institute of Technology for NASA.

Quantitative Stellar Spectral Classification. III. Spectral Resolution
The method developed by Stock & Stock (1999) to derive absolutemagnitudes and intrinsic colors is applied to simulated low-resolutionspectra. The simulation is made by convolving real spectra with aGaussian function, with σ (the full width at half maximum)related to the final spectral resolution. The accuracy with which thestellar parameters are determined indicates that the method may beapplied to typical objective-prism spectra. We show that changes in thespectral resolution do not significantly affect the stellar parametersobtained with this method for early-type stars, whereas for later-typestars an improved approach is necessary.

Decay of Planetary Debris Disks
We report new Spitzer 24 μm photometry of 76 main-sequence A-typestars. We combine these results with previously reported Spitzer 24μm data and 24 and 25 μm photometry from the Infrared SpaceObservatory and the Infrared Astronomy Satellite. The result is a sampleof 266 stars with mass close to 2.5 Msolar, all detected toat least the ~7 σ level relative to their photospheric emission.We culled ages for the entire sample from the literature and/orestimated them using the H-R diagram and isochrones; they range from 5to 850 Myr. We identified excess thermal emission using an internallyderived K-24 (or 25) μm photospheric color and then compared allstars in the sample to that color. Because we have excluded stars withstrong emission lines or extended emission (associated with nearbyinterstellar gas), these excesses are likely to be generated by debrisdisks. Younger stars in the sample exhibit excess thermal emission morefrequently and with higher fractional excess than do the older stars.However, as many as 50% of the younger stars do not show excessemission. The decline in the magnitude of excess emission, for thosestars that show it, has a roughly t0/time dependence, witht0~150 Myr. If anything, stars in binary systems (includingAlgol-type stars) and λ Boo stars show less excess emission thanthe other members of the sample. Our results indicate that (1) there issubstantial variety among debris disks, including that a significantnumber of stars emerge from the protoplanetary stage of evolution withlittle remaining disk in the 10-60 AU region and (2) in addition, it islikely that much of the dust we detect is generated episodically bycollisions of large planetesimals during the planet accretion end game,and that individual events often dominate the radiometric properties ofa debris system. This latter behavior agrees generally with what we knowabout the evolution of the solar system, and also with theoreticalmodels of planetary system formation.

New insights on the AU-scale circumstellar structure of FU Orionis
We report new near-infrared, long-baseline interferometric observationsat the AU scale of the pre-main-sequence star FU Orionis with the PTI,IOTA and VLTI interferometers. This young stellar object has beenobserved on 42 nights over a period of 6 years from 1998 to 2003. Wehave obtained 287 independent measurements of the fringe visibility with6 different baselines ranging from 20 to 110 m in length, in the H and Kbands. Our data resolves FU Ori at the AU scale, and provides newconstraints at shorter baselines and shorter wavelengths. Our extensive(u,v)-plane coverage, coupled with the published spectral energydistribution data, allows us to test the accretion disk scenario. Wefind that the most probable explanation for these observations is thatFU Ori hosts an active accretion disk whose temperature law isconsistent with standard models and with an accretion rate of dot M=(6.3 ± 0.6) × 10-5(Mstar/Mȯ)-1 Mȯyr-1. We are able to constrain the geometry of the disk,including an inclination of 55-7+5 deg and aposition angle of 47-11 0+7 deg. In addition, a 10percent peak-to-peak oscillation is detected in the data (at thetwo-sigma level) from the longest baselines, which we interpret as apossible disk hot-spot or companion. The still somewhat limited (u, v)sampling and substantial measurement uncertainty prevent us fromconstraining the location of the spot with confidence, since manysolutions yield a statistically acceptable fit. However, the oscillationin our best data set is best explained with an unresolved spot locatedat a projected distance of 10 ± 1 AU at the 130 ± 1 degposition angle and with a magnitude difference of Δ K ≈ 3.9± 0.2 and Δ H ≈ 3.6 ± 0.2 mag moving away fromthe center at a rate of 1.2 ± 0.6 AU yr-1. Althoughthis bright spot on the surface of the disk could be tracing somethermal instabilities in the disk, we propose to interpret this spot asthe signature of a companion of the central FU Ori system on anextremely eccentric orbit. We speculate that the close encounter of thisputative companion and the central star could be the explanation of theinitial photometric rise of the luminosity of this object.

C, N, O in λ Boo stars and in composite spectra
The selective abundance of C, N, O (almost solar) with respect to thatof other elements (underabundant) in λ Boo stars has beeninterpreted as a characteristic peculiarity of these objects, whenconsidered as single stars. We show here that a similar selectiveabundance is predicted from the composite spectra resulting from twounresolved stars in the same temperature range as the λ Boostars.

Mid-Infrared Spectra of Dust Debris around Main-Sequence Stars
We report spectra obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope in theλ=14-35μm range of 19 nearby main-sequence stars with infraredexcesses. The six stars with strong dust emission show no recognizablespectral features, suggesting that the bulk of the emitting particleshave diameters larger than 10 μm. If the observed dust results fromcollisional grinding of larger solids, we infer minimum masses of theparent body population between 0.004 and 0.06 M⊕. Weestimate grain production rates of ~1010 g s-1around λ Boo and HR 1570; selective accretion of this matter mayhelp explain their peculiar surface abundances. There appear to be innertruncations in the dust clouds at 48, 11, 52, and 54 AU around HR 333,HR 506, HR 1082, and HR 3927, respectively.Based on observations with the NASA Spitzer Space Telescope, which isoperated by the California Institute of Technology for NASA.

The Indo-US Library of Coudé Feed Stellar Spectra
We have obtained spectra for 1273 stars using the 0.9 m coudéfeed telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory. This telescope feedsthe coudé spectrograph of the 2.1 m telescope. The spectra havebeen obtained with the no. 5 camera of the coudé spectrograph anda Loral 3K×1K CCD. Two gratings have been used to provide spectralcoverage from 3460 to 9464 Å, at a resolution of ~1 Å FWHMand at an original dispersion of 0.44 Å pixel-1. For885 stars we have complete spectra over the entire 3460 to 9464 Åwavelength region (neglecting small gaps of less than 50 Å), andpartial spectral coverage for the remaining stars. The 1273 stars havebeen selected to provide broad coverage of the atmospheric parametersTeff, logg, and [Fe/H], as well as spectral type. The goal ofthe project is to provide a comprehensive library of stellar spectra foruse in the automated classification of stellar and galaxy spectra and ingalaxy population synthesis. In this paper we discuss thecharacteristics of the spectral library, viz., details of theobservations, data reduction procedures, and selection of stars. We alsopresent a few illustrations of the quality and information available inthe spectra. The first version of the complete spectral library is nowpublicly available from the National Optical Astronomy Observatory(NOAO) via ftp and http.

Dusty Debris Disks as Signposts of Planets: Implications for Spitzer Space Telescope
Submillimeter and near-infrared images of cool dusty debris disks andrings suggest the existence of unseen planets. At dusty but nonimagedstars, semimajor axes of associated planets can be estimated from thedust temperature. For some young stars these semimajor axes are greaterthan 1" as seen from Earth. Such stars are excellent targets forsensitive near-infrared imaging searches for warm planets. To probe thefull extent of the dust and hence of potential planetary orbits, Spitzerobservations should include measurements with the 160 μm filter.

λ Bootis stars with composite spectra
We examine the large sample of λ Boo candidates collected inTable 1 of Gerbaldi et al. (\cite{Gerbaldi2003}) to see how many of themshow composite spectra. Of the 132 λ Boo candidates we identify22 which definitely show composite spectra and 15 more for which thereare good reasons to suspect a composite spectrum. The percentage ofλ Boo candidates with composite spectra is therefore >17% andpossibly considerably higher. For such stars the λ Booclassification should be reconsidered taking into account the fact thattheir spectra are composite. We argue that some of the underabundancesreported in the literature may simply be the result of the failure toconsider the composite nature of the spectra. This leads to thelegitimate suspicion that some, if not all, the λ Boo candidatesare not chemically peculiar at all. A thorough analysis of even a singleone of the λ Boo candidates with composite spectra, in which thecomposite nature of the spectrum is duly considered, which woulddemonstrate that the chemical peculiarities persist, would clear thedoubt we presently have that the stars with composite spectra may not beλ Boo stars at all.Based on observations collected at ESO (Echelec spectrograph) and at TBL(Telescope Bernard Lyot) of the Pic du Midi Observatory (France).

Contributions to the Nearby Stars (NStars) Project: Spectroscopy of Stars Earlier than M0 within 40 Parsecs: The Northern Sample. I.
We have embarked on a project, under the aegis of the Nearby Stars(NStars)/Space Interferometry Mission Preparatory Science Program, toobtain spectra, spectral types, and, where feasible, basic physicalparameters for the 3600 dwarf and giant stars earlier than M0 within 40pc of the Sun. In this paper, we report on the results of this projectfor the first 664 stars in the northern hemisphere. These resultsinclude precise, homogeneous spectral types, basic physical parameters(including the effective temperature, surface gravity, and overallmetallicity [M/H]), and measures of the chromospheric activity of ourprogram stars. Observed and derived data presented in this paper arealso available on the project's Web site.

The heterogeneous class of lambda Bootis stars
We demonstrate that it is arduous to define the lambda Boo stars as aclass of objects exhibiting uniform abundance peculiarities which wouldbe generated by a mechanism altering the structure of their atmosphericlayers. We collected the stars classified as lambda Boo up to now anddiscuss their properties, in particular the important percentage ofconfirmed binaries producing composite spectra (including our adaptiveoptics observations) and of misclassified objects. The unexplained RVvariables (and thus suspected binaries), the known SB for which we lackinformation on the companion, the stars with an UV flux inconsistentwith their classification, and the fast rotating stars for which noaccurate abundance analysis can be performed, are also reviewed.Partly based on observations collected at the CFH Telescope (Hawaii) andat TBL of the Pic du Midi Observatory (France).Table \ref{tab5} is only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org

Catalogue of averaged stellar effective magnetic fields. I. Chemically peculiar A and B type stars
This paper presents the catalogue and the method of determination ofaveraged quadratic effective magnetic fields < B_e > for 596 mainsequence and giant stars. The catalogue is based on measurements of thestellar effective (or mean longitudinal) magnetic field strengths B_e,which were compiled from the existing literature.We analysed the properties of 352 chemically peculiar A and B stars inthe catalogue, including Am, ApSi, He-weak, He-rich, HgMn, ApSrCrEu, andall ApSr type stars. We have found that the number distribution of allchemically peculiar (CP) stars vs. averaged magnetic field strength isdescribed by a decreasing exponential function. Relations of this typehold also for stars of all the analysed subclasses of chemicalpeculiarity. The exponential form of the above distribution function canbreak down below about 100 G, the latter value representingapproximately the resolution of our analysis for A type stars.Table A.1 and its references are only available in electronic form atthe CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/407/631 and Tables 3 to 9are only available in electronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org

A study of lambda Bootis type stars in the wavelength region beyond 7000 Å
The group of lambda Bootis type stars comprises late B- to earlyF-type, Population I objects which are basically metal weak, inparticular the Fe group elements, but with the clear exception of C, N,O and S. One of the theories to explain the abundance pattern of thesestars involves circumstellar or interstellar matter around the objects.Hence, we have compiled all available data from the literature of wellestablished members of the lambda Bootis group redward of 7000Å, in order to find evidence for matter around these objects.Furthermore, we present unpublished ISO as well as submillimetercontinuum and CO (2-1) line measurements to complete the data set. Intotal, measurements for 34 (26 with data redward of 20 mu m) wellestablished lambda Bootis stars are available. There is evidence foran infrared excesses in six stars (HD 31295, HD 74873, HD 110411, HD125162, HD 198160/1 and HD 210111) and two are doubtful cases (HD 11413and HD 192640) resulting in a percentage of 23% (excluding the twodoubtful cases). Dust models for these objects show fractional dustluminosities comparable to the Vega-type stars and slightly higher dusttemperatures. ISO-SWS spectroscopy for HD 125162 and HD 192640 resultedin the detection of pure stellar H I lines ruling out an activeaccretion disk (as found for several Herbig Ae/Be stars) around theseobjects. The submillimeter measurements gave only upper limits for theline and continuum fluxes.Based on observations with ISO, an ESA project with instruments fundedby ESA Member States (especially the PI countries: France, Germany, TheNetherlands and the UK) and with the participation of ISAS and NASA; andobservations at the Heinrich-Hertz-Telescope (HHT, operated by the theSubmillimeter Telescope Observatory).Tables 2 and 3 are only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org

The status of Galactic field λ Bootis stars in the post-Hipparcos era
The λ Bootis stars are Population I, late B- to early F-typestars, with moderate to extreme (up to a factor 100) surfaceunderabundances of most Fe-peak elements and solar abundances of lighterelements (C, N, O and S). To put constraints on the various existingtheories that try to explain these peculiar stars, we investigate theobservational properties of λ Bootis stars compared with areference sample of normal stars. Using various photometric systems andHipparcos data, we analyse the validity of standard photometriccalibrations, elemental abundances, and Galactic space motions. Therecrystallizes a clear picture of a homogeneous group of Population Iobjects found at all stages of their main-sequence evolution, with apeak at about 1 Gyr. No correlation of astrophysical parameters such asthe projected rotational velocities or elemental abundances with age isfound, suggesting that the a priori unknown mechanism, which createsλ Bootis stars, works continuously for late B- to early F-typestars in all stages of main-sequence evolution. Surprisingly, the sodiumabundances seem to indicate an interaction between the stars and theirlocal environment.

The λ Bootis phenomenon: interaction between a star and a diffuse interstellar cloud
The λ Bootis stars, a group of late B- to early F-type PopulationI stars, have surface abundances that resemble the general metaldepletion pattern found in the interstellar medium. Inspired by therecent result that the fundamental parameters of these peculiar starsdiffer in no respect from those of a comparison sample of normal stars,the hypothesis of an interaction between a star and a diffuseinterstellar cloud is considered as a possible explanation of thepeculiar abundance pattern. It is found that such a scenario is able toexplain the selective accretion of interstellar gas depleted incondensable elements as well as the spectral range of the λBootis phenomenon.

Metallicity Determinations from Ultraviolet-Visual Spectrophotometry. I. The Test Sample
New visual spectrophotometric observations of non-supergiant solarneighborhood stars are combined with IUE Newly Extracted Spectra (INES)energy distributions in order to derive their overall metallicities,[M/H]. This fundamental parameter, together with effective temperatureand apparent angular diameter, is obtained by applying the flux-fittingmethod while surface gravity is derived from the comparison withevolutionary tracks in the theoretical H-R diagram. Trigonometricparallaxes for the stars of the sample are taken from the HipparcosCatalogue. The quality of the flux calibration is discussed by analyzinga test sample via comparison with external photometry. The validity ofthe method in providing accurate metallicities is tested on a selectedsample of G-type stars with well-determined atmospheric parameters fromrecent high-resolution spectral analysis. The extension of the overallprocedure to the determination of the chemical composition of all theINES non-supergiant G-type stars with accurate parallaxes is planned inorder to investigate their atmospheric temperature structure. Based onobservations collected at the INAOE ``G. Haro'' Observatory, Cananea(Mexico).

Velocity-resolved [Fe II] Line Spectroscopy of L1551 IRS 5: A Partially Ionized Wind under Collimation around an Ionized Fast Jet
We present a new [Fe II] λ1.644 μm emission-line image of theL1551 IRS 5 jets and a velocity-resolved spectrum obtained with theSubaru Telescope. In the [Fe II] line image showing two separate jetlikefeatures, a strong and spatially wide [Fe II] emission feature was foundelongated along the northern jet at its base. The echelle spectrum takenalong this feature shows two prominent velocity components together withunderlying pedestal and wing emissions. The entire emission range isblueshifted with respect to the systemic velocity, which shows that theemission originates from an outflow. The high-velocity component (HVC)at VLSR=-300 km s-1, which has a correspondingHα emission, consistently shows a narrow line width of ~40 kms-1 (deconvolved FWHM value). The low-velocity component(LVC) at VLSR=-100 km s-1, on the other hand, hasno corresponding Hα feature and is located spatially closer to theIRS 5 VLA sources (IRS 5 VLA) than is the HVC. The LVC shows broad linewidths of 130-160 km s-1 (FWHM) near IRS 5 VLA, while itsline width decreases with increasing distance from it. We interpret fromthese characteristics that the HVC is a spatially narrow,well-collimated ionized stellar jet and that the LVC is a widely opened,partially ionized disk wind that is being collimated as it travels awayfrom the origin. The inclination-corrected velocity of the HVC, 440 kms-1, may imply that the accreting protostar driving the jetis rotating at almost its breakup speed. The LVC has aninclination-corrected wind velocity of ~200 km s-1,suggesting that it is accelerated at the region where the accretion diskis interacting with the stellar magnetic field. The pedestal and redwing features may represent the LVC gas entrained and accelerated by theHVC. It is possible that the two apparently parallel jetlike featuresseen more than 6" away from the IRS 5 VLA sources are the brightenededges of the partially ionized wind. Based on data collected at SubaruTelescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory ofJapan.

A Spectroscopic Search for λ Bootis and Other Peculiar A-Type Stars in Intermediate-Age Open Clusters
As part of our continuing search for peculiar A-type stars, especiallyλ Bootis stars, in open clusters of all ages, we have obtainedclassification spectra of 130 late B, A, and early F-type stars in 12intermediate-age open clusters, including NGC 1039, 2281, 2548, 6633,7039, 7063, 7092, and 7209, IC 4665, IC 4756, Stock 2, and Praesepe. Thespectra were obtained with resolutions of 1.8 and 3.6 Å on the 0.8m telescope of Appalachian State University and were classified on theMK system. Numerous classical Ap and Am stars were found among the 130,including two new Ap stars in NGC 7092. In addition, three emission-linestars and two candidate λ Bootis stars were found. Neither ofthese λ Bootis candidates turned out to be members of theirrespective clusters. Combined with 184 stars previously classified in 10other intermediate-age open clusters, also devoid of λ Bootisstars, a statistically significant null result is obtained. We discussthe implications of this null result for our understanding of theλ Bootis mechanism.

The elemental abundance pattern of twenty lambda Bootis candidate stars
Detailed elemental abundances were derived for twenty bona fide lambdaBootis as well as two MK standard stars. Other than LTE abundances forten elements (including C and O), NLTE values for Na were determined.The group of lambda Bootis stars consists of non-magnetic, Population I,late B to early F-type dwarfs with a typical abundance pattern (Fe-peakelements being underabundant whereas C, N, O and S being almost solarabundant). Since classification resolution spectroscopy in the opticaldomain is not capable of determining the abundance of the lightelements, a detailed abundance analysis is the ultimate test for themembership of an object to this group. Another important point is thedetection of apparent spectroscopic binary systems in which two solarabundance objects mimic one metal-weak star, as proposed as a workinghypothesis by Faraggiana & Bonifacio (\cite{farag99}). From twentyprogram stars we are able to confirm or establish the membership fornine objects (HD 23258, HD 36726, HD 40588, HD 74911, HD 84123, HD91130, HD 106223, HD 111604 and HD 290799). Five stars (HD 90821, HD98772, HD 103483, HD 108765 and HD 261904) can be definitely ruled outas being members of the lambda Bootis group whereas no unambiguousdecision can be drawn for another six stars (HD 66684, HD 105058, HD120500, HD 141851, HD 201184 and HD 294253). One very important resultis the apparent overabundances found for Na which cannot be explained byaccretion or mass-loss alone. Based on observations from theOsservatorio Astronomico di Padova-Asiago, McDonald Observatory, KittPeak National Observatory and Observatório do Pico dosDias-LNA/CNPq/MCT.

Rotational velocities of A-type stars in the northern hemisphere. II. Measurement of v sin i
This work is the second part of the set of measurements of v sin i forA-type stars, begun by Royer et al. (\cite{Ror_02a}). Spectra of 249 B8to F2-type stars brighter than V=7 have been collected at Observatoirede Haute-Provence (OHP). Fourier transforms of several line profiles inthe range 4200-4600 Å are used to derive v sin i from thefrequency of the first zero. Statistical analysis of the sampleindicates that measurement error mainly depends on v sin i and thisrelative error of the rotational velocity is found to be about 5% onaverage. The systematic shift with respect to standard values fromSlettebak et al. (\cite{Slk_75}), previously found in the first paper,is here confirmed. Comparisons with data from the literature agree withour findings: v sin i values from Slettebak et al. are underestimatedand the relation between both scales follows a linear law ensuremath vsin inew = 1.03 v sin iold+7.7. Finally, thesedata are combined with those from the previous paper (Royer et al.\cite{Ror_02a}), together with the catalogue of Abt & Morrell(\cite{AbtMol95}). The resulting sample includes some 2150 stars withhomogenized rotational velocities. Based on observations made atObservatoire de Haute Provence (CNRS), France. Tables \ref{results} and\ref{merging} are only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.125.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/393/897

On the Period-Luminosity-Colour-Metallicity relation and the pulsational characteristics of lambda Bootis type stars
Generally, chemical peculiarity found for stars on the upper mainsequence excludes delta Scuti type pulsation (e.g. Ap and Am stars), butfor the group of lambda Bootis stars it is just the opposite. This makesthem very interesting for asteroseismological investigations. The groupof lambda Bootis type stars comprises late B- to early F-type,Population I objects which are basically metal weak, in particular theFe group elements, but with the clear exception of C, N, O and S. Thepresent work is a continuation of the studies by Paunzen et al.(\cite{Pau97}, \cite{Pau98}), who presented first results on thepulsational characteristics of the lambda Bootis stars. Since then, wehave observed 22 additional objects; we found eight new pulsators andconfirmed another one. Furthermore, new spectroscopic data (Paunzen\cite{Pau01}) allowed us to sort out misidentified candidates and to addtrue members to the group. From 67 members of this group, only two arenot photometrically investigated yet which makes our analysis highlyrepresentative. We have compared our results on the pulsationalbehaviour of the lambda Bootis stars with those of a sample of deltaScuti type objects. We find that at least 70% of all lambda Bootis typestars inside the classical instability strip pulsate, and they do sowith high overtone modes (Q < 0.020 d). Only a few stars, if any,pulsate in the fundamental mode. Our photometric results are inexcellent agreement with the spectroscopic work on high-degree nonradialpulsations by Bohlender et al. (\cite{Boh99}). Compared to the deltaScuti stars, the cool and hot borders of the instability strip of thelambda Bootis stars are shifted by about 25 mmag, towards smaller(b-y)_0. Using published abundances and the metallicity sensitiveindices of the Geneva 7-colour and Strömgren uvbybeta systems, wehave derived [Z] values which describe the surface abundance of theheavier elements for the group members. We find that thePeriod-Luminosity-Colour relation for the group of lambda Bootis starsis within the errors identical with that of the normal delta Scutistars. No clear evidence for a statistically significant metallicityterm was detected. Based on observations from the Austrian AutomaticPhotoelectric Telescope (Fairborn Observatory), SAAO and Siding SpringObservatory.

The accretion/diffusion theory for lambda Bootis stars in the light of spectroscopic data
Most of the current theories suggest the lambda Bootis phenomenon tooriginate from an interaction between the stellar surface and its localenvironment. In this paper, we compare the abundance pattern of thelambda Bootis stars to that of the interstellar medium and find largerdeficiencies for Mg, Si, Mn and Zn than in the interstellar medium. Acomparison with metal poor post-AGB stars showing evidence forcircumstellar material indicates a similar physical process possiblybeing at work for some of the lambda Bootis stars, but not for all ofthem. Despite the fact that the number of spectroscopically analysedlambda Bootis stars has considerably increased in the past, a test ofpredicted effects with observations shows current abundance andtemperature data to be still controversial.

The abundance pattern of lambda Bootis stars
Within a project to investigate the properties of lambda Bootis stars,we report on their abundance pattern. High resolution spectra have beenobtained for a total of twelve candidate lambda Bootis stars, four ofthem being contained in spectroscopic binary systems, and detailedabundance analyses have been performed. All program stars show acharacteristic lambda Bootis abundance pattern (deficient heavy elementsand solar abundant light elements) and an enhanced abundance of Na. Thiswork raises the fraction of lambda Bootis stars with known abundances to50%. The resulting abundances complemented by literature data are usedto construct a ``mean lambda Bootis abundance pattern'', which exhibits,apart from general underabundances of heavy elements (~-1 dex) and solarabundances of C, N, O, Na and S, a star-to-star scatter which is up totwice as large as for a comparable sample of normal stars. Based onobservations obtained at the Osservatorio Astronomico di Padua-Asiago,OPD/LNA, KPNO and DSO.

Rotational velocities of A-type stars. I. Measurement of v sin i in the southern hemisphere
Within the scope of a Key Programme determining fundamental parametersof stars observed by HIPPARCOS, spectra of 525 B8 to F2-type starsbrighter than V=8 have been collected at ESO. Fourier transforms ofseveral line profiles in the range 4200-4500 Å are used to derivev sin i from the frequency of the first zero. Statistical analysis ofthe sample indicates that measurement error is a function of v sin i andthis relative error of the rotational velocity is found to be about 6%on average. The results obtained are compared with data from theliterature. There is a systematic shift from standard values from\citet{Slk_75}, which are 10 to 12% lower than our findings. Comparisonswith other independent v sin i values tend to prove that those fromSlettebak et al. are underestimated. This effect is attributed to thepresence of binaries in the standard sample of Slettebak et al., and tothe model atmosphere they used. Based on observations made at theEuropean Southern Observatory (ESO), La Silla, Chile, in the frameworkof the Key Programme 5-004-43K. Table 4 is only available in electronicform at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.125.5)or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/381/105

Light element non-LTE abundances of lambda Bootis stars. II. Nitrogen and sulphur
One of the main characteristics proclaimed for the group of the lambdaBootis stars is the apparent solar abundance of the light elements C, N,O and S. The typical abundance pattern is completed by the strongunderabundances of the Fe-peak elements. In the first paper of thisseries, we have shown that carbon is less abundant than oxygen but bothelements are still significantly more abundant than Fe-peak elements.The mean abundances, based on a detailed non-LTE investigation, werefound -0.37 dex and -0.07 dex, respectively. As a further step, we nowpresent non-LTE abundances of nitrogen and sulphur for thirteen membersof the lambda Bootis group based on several spectral lines between 8590Å, and 8750 Å. Furthermore, LTE abundances for calcium inthe same spectral range were derived and compared with values from theliterature. Similar to the mean abundances of carbon and oxygen, nearlysolar values were found (-0.30 dex for nitrogen and -0.11 dex forsulphur) for our sample of program stars. Among our sample, onepreviously undetected binary system (HD 64491) was identified. From astatistical point of view, the abundances of the light elements rangefrom slightly overabundant to moderately underabundant compared to theSun. However, the individual objects always exhibit a similiar pattern,with the Fe-peak elements being significantly more underabundant thanthe light elements. No correlation of the derived abundances withastrophysical parameters such as the effective temperature, surfacegravity or projected rotational velocity was found. Furthermore, theabundances of the light elements do not allow us to discriminate betweenany proposed theory. Based on observations obtained at BNAO Rozhen andComplejo Astronómico el Leoncito (CASLEO), operated under theagreement between the Consejo Nacional de InvestigacionesCientíficas y Técnicas de la República Argentinaand the National Universities of La Plata, Córdoba y San Juan.

Physical parameters of lambda Bootis stars
This is the first of two papers whose main goal is to update and improvethe information available on the physical properties of the lambdaBootis stars. The determination of the stellar parameters is offundamental importance to shed light into the different theoriesproposed to explain the lambda Bootis phenomenon. With this aim,projected rotational velocities, effective temperatures, surfacegravities and chemical abundances of a sample of suspected lambda Bootisstars have been calculated. Five objects showing composite spectratypical of binary systems were found in our analysis. The abundancedistribution of the program stars does not resemble the chemicalcomposition of the class prototype, lambda Boo, which poses someconcerns regarding the idea of a well-defined, chemically homogeneousgroup of stars. A possible relation between rotational velocities andthe lambda Bootis phenomenon has been found. This result would be inagreement with the accretion scenario proposed by Turcotte &Charbonneau (\cite{Turcotte93}). Figure 3 is only available inelectronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org

A spectroscopic survey for lambda Bootis stars. III. Final results
In the third paper of a series dedicated to the spectroscopic survey fornew lambda Bootis stars, we present all new and confirmed members of thegroup as well as a detailed analysis of the observed sample. The natureof this small group of chemically peculiar stars of the upper mainsequence still challenges our understanding of processes like diffusion,mass-loss and accretion. The typical abundances pattern (nearly solarvalues for C, N, O and S whereas the Fe-peak elements are moderate tostrong underabundant) can still not be explained by any proposed theory.Hence, the significant increase of new members gives the opportunity toinvestigate the group properties in more detail. We report the discoveryof 26 new members of the group and the confirmation of 18 candidatesfrom the literature. This almost triples the number of known lambdaBootis stars. The existence of one member in the young open cluster NGC2264 and four members in the Orion OB1 association proves that thelambda Bootis phenomenon already works at very early stages of stellarevolution. Recent results from the Hipparcos mission have shown that thewell established lambda Bootis stars of the Galactic field comprise thewhole area from the Zero Age Main Sequence to the Terminal Age MainSequence (~ 109 yr for an A-type star). There is a continuoustransition between very young and rather evolved evolutionary stages. Wefind that the overall percentage of lambda Bootis type among all normaltype stars in the spectral range from B8 to F4 is 2% in the Galacticfield as well as in open clusters. Furthermore, 44 metal-weak objectsare listed which might be connected with the lambda Bootis phenomenon.Our biased sample (chosen by photometric boxes) is not distinguishedfrom all A-type stars in the corresponding spectral region by therotational velocity distribution. Only for the luminosity classes IV andIII (especially for the cooler program stars) the determined mean v sini values are very high compared to those of the literature. Based onobservations from the Observatoire de Haute-Provence, OsservatorioAstronomico di Padova-Asiago, Observatório do Pico dosDias-LNA/CNPq/MCT, Chews Ridge Observatory (MIRA) and University ofToronto Southern Observatory (Las Campanas).

A spectroscopic survey for lambda Bootis stars. II. The observational data
lambda Bootis stars comprise only a small number of all A-type stars andare characterized as nonmagnetic, Population i, late B to early F-typedwarfs which show significant underabundances of metals whereas thelight elements (C, N, O and S) are almost normal abundant compared tothe Sun. In the second paper on a spectroscopic survey for lambda Bootisstars, we present the spectral classifications of all program starsobserved. These stars were selected on the basis of their Strömgrenuvbybeta colors as lambda Bootis candidates. In total, 708 objects insix open clusters, the Orion OB1 association and the Galactic field wereclassified. In addition, 9 serendipity non-candidates in the vicinity ofour program stars as well as 15 Guide Star Catalogue stars were observedresulting in a total of 732 classified stars. The 15 objects from theGuide Star Catalogue are part of a program for the classification ofapparent variable stars from the Fine Guidance Sensors of the HubbleSpace Telescope. A grid of 105 MK standard as well as ``pathological''stars guarantees a precise classification. A comparison of our spectralclassification with the extensive work of Abt & Morrell(\cite{Abt95}) shows no significant differences. The derived types are0.23 +/- 0.09 (rms error per measurement) subclasses later and 0.30 +/-0.08 luminosity classes more luminous than those of Abt & Morrell(\cite{Abt95}) based on a sample of 160 objects in common. The estimatederrors of the means are +/- 0.1 subclasses. The characteristics of oursample are discussed in respect to the distribution on the sky, apparentvisual magnitudes and Strömgren uvbybeta colors. Based onobservations from the Observatoire de Haute-Provence, OsservatorioAstronomico di Padova-Asiago, Observatório do Pico dosDias-LNA/CNPq/MCT, Chews Ridge Observatory (MIRA) and University ofToronto Southern Observatory (Las Campanas).

Catalogue of Apparent Diameters and Absolute Radii of Stars (CADARS) - Third edition - Comments and statistics
The Catalogue, available at the Centre de Données Stellaires deStrasbourg, consists of 13 573 records concerning the results obtainedfrom different methods for 7778 stars, reported in the literature. Thefollowing data are listed for each star: identifications, apparentmagnitude, spectral type, apparent diameter in arcsec, absolute radiusin solar units, method of determination, reference, remarks. Commentsand statistics obtained from CADARS are given. The Catalogue isavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcar?J/A+A/367/521

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Observation and Astrometry data

Constellation:Orion
Right ascension:04h54m53.80s
Declination:+10°09'03.0"
Apparent magnitude:4.65
Distance:36.982 parsecs
Proper motion RA:40.8
Proper motion Dec:-128.9
B-T magnitude:4.749
V-T magnitude:4.659

Catalogs and designations:
Proper NamesAl Taj ar Raaba
Al Taj IV   (Edit)
Bayerπα Ori
Flamsteed7 Ori
HD 1989HD 31295
TYCHO-2 2000TYC 688-1867-1
USNO-A2.0USNO-A2 0975-01207500
BSC 1991HR 1570
HIPHIP 22845

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