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 Speckle Observations of Binary Stars with the WIYN Telescope. IV. Differential PhotometryFive hundred seventy-six magnitude difference measures are presented for260 binary stars. These measures are derived from CCD-based speckleobservations taken at the WIYN 3.5 m telescope at Kitt Peak NationalObservatory during the period 1997-2000. Separations of the systemsrange from over 1" down to near the diffraction limit of the telescope.A study of multiple measures of the same targets indicates that themeasures have a typical uncertainty of better than 0.13 mag per 2 minuteobservation, and that multiple observations can be averaged to arrive atsmaller uncertainties. Results presented here are also compared, insofaras it is possible, with measures in the Hipparcos Catalogue and toprevious studies using adaptive optics. No major systematic errors wereidentified.The WIYN Observatory is a joint facility of the University ofWisconsin-Madison, Indiana University, Yale University, and the NationalOptical Astronomy Observatory. The Geneva-Copenhagen survey of the Solar neighbourhood. Ages, metallicities, and kinematic properties of 14 000 F and G dwarfsWe present and discuss new determinations of metallicity, rotation, age,kinematics, and Galactic orbits for a complete, magnitude-limited, andkinematically unbiased sample of 16 682 nearby F and G dwarf stars. Our63 000 new, accurate radial-velocity observations for nearly 13 500stars allow identification of most of the binary stars in the sampleand, together with published uvbyβ photometry, Hipparcosparallaxes, Tycho-2 proper motions, and a few earlier radial velocities,complete the kinematic information for 14 139 stars. These high-qualityvelocity data are supplemented by effective temperatures andmetallicities newly derived from recent and/or revised calibrations. Theremaining stars either lack Hipparcos data or have fast rotation. Amajor effort has been devoted to the determination of new isochrone agesfor all stars for which this is possible. Particular attention has beengiven to a realistic treatment of statistical biases and errorestimates, as standard techniques tend to underestimate these effectsand introduce spurious features in the age distributions. Our ages agreewell with those by Edvardsson et al. (\cite{edv93}), despite severalastrophysical and computational improvements since then. We demonstrate,however, how strong observational and theoretical biases cause thedistribution of the observed ages to be very different from that of thetrue age distribution of the sample. Among the many basic relations ofthe Galactic disk that can be reinvestigated from the data presentedhere, we revisit the metallicity distribution of the G dwarfs and theage-metallicity, age-velocity, and metallicity-velocity relations of theSolar neighbourhood. Our first results confirm the lack of metal-poor Gdwarfs relative to closed-box model predictions (the G dwarfproblem''), the existence of radial metallicity gradients in the disk,the small change in mean metallicity of the thin disk since itsformation and the substantial scatter in metallicity at all ages, andthe continuing kinematic heating of the thin disk with an efficiencyconsistent with that expected for a combination of spiral arms and giantmolecular clouds. Distinct features in the distribution of the Vcomponent of the space motion are extended in age and metallicity,corresponding to the effects of stochastic spiral waves rather thanclassical moving groups, and may complicate the identification ofthick-disk stars from kinematic criteria. More advanced analyses of thisrich material will require careful simulations of the selection criteriafor the sample and the distribution of observational errors.Based on observations made with the Danish 1.5-m telescope at ESO, LaSilla, Chile, and with the Swiss 1-m telescope at Observatoire deHaute-Provence, France.Complete Tables 1 and 2 are only available in electronic form at the CDSvia anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/418/989 Speckle Observations of Binary Stars with the WIYN Telescope. II. Relative Astrometry Measures during 1998-2000Five hundred twelve relative astrometry measures are presented for 253double stars, including 53 double stars discovered by Hipparcos. In 15cases, relative astrometry is reported for the first time for newlyconfirmed pairs. In addition, 20 high-quality nondetections ofcompanions are reported for stars suspected of being nonsingle byHipparcos. Observations were taken using a fast-readout CCD camerasystem at the WIYN 3.5 m telescope at Kitt Peak, Arizona. In comparingthese measures with ephemeris predictions for binary stars with verywell known orbits, we find that the measurement precision is better than3 mas in separation and 1° in position angle per individualobservation. Measurement precision and detection capabilities are fullydiscussed, and confirmed orbital motion is reported in four cases of theHipparcos double star discoveries. The WIYN Observatory is a jointfacility of the University of Wisconsin-Madison, Indiana University,Yale University, and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory. Statistics of spectroscopic sub-systems in visual multiple starsA large sample of visual multiples of spectral types F5-M has beensurveyed for the presence of spectroscopic sub-systems. Some 4200 radialvelocities of 574 components were measured in 1994-2000 with thecorrelation radial velocity meter. A total of 46 new spectroscopicorbits were computed for this sample. Physical relations are establishedfor most of the visual systems and several optical components areidentified as well. The period distribution of sub-systems has a maximumat periods from 2 to 7 days, likely explained by a combination of tidaldissipation with triple-star dynamics. The fraction of spectroscopicsub-systems among the dwarf components of close visual binaries withknown orbits is similar to that of field dwarfs, from 11% to 18% percomponent. Sub-systems are more frequent among the components of widevisual binaries and among wide tertiary components to the known visualor spectroscopic binaries - 20% and 30%, respectively. In triple systemswith both outer (visual) and inner (spectroscopic) orbits known, we findan anti-correlation between the periods of inner sub-systems and theeccentricities of outer orbits which must be related to dynamicalstability constraints. Tables 1, 2, and 6 are only available inelectronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr(130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/382/118 The Physical Basis of Luminosity Classification in the Late A-, F-, and Early G-Type Stars. I. Precise Spectral Types for 372 StarsThis is the first in a series of two papers that address the problem ofthe physical nature of luminosity classification in the late A-, F-, andearly G-type stars. In this paper, we present precise spectralclassifications of 372 stars on the MK system. For those stars in theset with Strömgren uvbyβ photometry, we derive reddenings andpresent a calibration of MK temperature types in terms of the intrinsicStrömgren (b-y)0 index. We also examine the relationshipbetween the luminosity class and the Strömgren c1 index,which measures the Balmer jump. The second paper will address thederivation of the physical parameters of these stars, and therelationships between these physical parameters and the luminosityclass. Stars classified in this paper include one new λ Bootisstar and 10 of the F- and G-type dwarfs with recently discoveredplanets. The geometry of stellar motions in the nucleus region of the Ursa Major kinematic groupThe structure of the central part of the UMa stellar kinematic group wasconsidered according to the data from Hipparcos, Tycho and ACTcatalogues. We have shown that in the space occupied by the nucleusthere are several populations of stars. The first includes ten starswhich are very compactly located in the proper motion diagram and have anormal proper motion distribution. The second group includes six starswith large kinematic difference and there are six field stars placedhere too. The question about their coexistence in a common region ofspace remains open. The well-known stars Mizar and Alcor appear tobelong to the different subsystems and do not belong to a unique stellarsystem. The published radial velocities, as a rule, are determined withinsufficient accuracy compared to the errors of the currently availableproper motions. A high precision in the radial velocities measurementsis necessary for a thorough study of the kinematics of stars inside UMastar system. Catalogue of Apparent Diameters and Absolute Radii of Stars (CADARS) - Third edition - Comments and statisticsThe Catalogue, available at the Centre de Données Stellaires deStrasbourg, consists of 13 573 records concerning the results obtainedfrom different methods for 7778 stars, reported in the literature. Thefollowing data are listed for each star: identifications, apparentmagnitude, spectral type, apparent diameter in arcsec, absolute radiusin solar units, method of determination, reference, remarks. Commentsand statistics obtained from CADARS are given. The Catalogue isavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcar?J/A+A/367/521 ICCD Speckle Observations of Binary Stars. XXIII. Measurements during 1982-1997 from Six Telescopes, with 14 New OrbitsWe present 2017 observations of 1286 binary stars, observed by means ofspeckle interferometry using six telescopes over a 15 year period from1982 April to 1997 June. These measurements constitute the 23dinstallment in CHARA's speckle program at 2 to 4 m class telescopes andinclude the second major collection of measurements from the MountWilson 100 inch (2.5 m) Hooker Telescope. Orbital elements are alsopresented for 14 systems, seven of which have had no previouslypublished orbital analyses. Two-colour photometry for 9473 components of close Hipparcos double and multiple starsUsing observations obtained with the Tycho instrument of the ESAHipparcos satellite, a two-colour photometry is produced for componentsof more than 7 000 Hipparcos double and multiple stars with angularseparations 0.1 to 2.5 arcsec. We publish 9473 components of 5173systems with separations above 0.3 arcsec. The majority of them did nothave Tycho photometry in the Hipparcos catalogue. The magnitudes arederived in the Tycho B_T and V_T passbands, similar to the Johnsonpassbands. Photometrically resolved components of the binaries withstatistically significant trigonometric parallaxes can be put on an HRdiagram, the majority of them for the first time. Based on observationsmade with the ESA Hipparcos satellite. Speckle Interferometry at the US Naval Observatory. II.Position angles and separations resulting from 2406 speckleinterferometric observations of 547 binary stars are tabulated. This isthe second in a series of papers presenting measures obtained using the66 cm refractor at the US Naval Observatory in Washington, DC, with anintensified CCD detector. Program stars range in separation from 0.2" to3.8", with Deltam<=2.5 mag and a limiting magnitude of V=10.0. Theobservation epochs run from 1993 January through 1995 August. Randomerrors are estimated to be 14 mas in separation and 0.52d/rho inposition angle, where rho is the separation in arcseconds. Theinstrumentation and calibration are briefly described. Aspects of thedata analysis related to the avoidance of systematic errors are alsodiscussed. Visual binary orbits and masses POST HIPPARCOSThe parallaxes from Hipparcos are an important ingredient to derive moreaccurate masses for known orbital binaries, but in order to exploit theparallaxes fully, the orbital elements have to be known to similarprecision. The present work gives improved orbital elements for some 205systems by combining the Hipparcos astrometry with existing ground-basedobservations. The new solutions avoid the linearity constraints andomissions in the Hipparcos Catalog by using the intermediate TransitData which can be combined with ground-based observations in arbitarilycomplex orbital models. The new orbital elements and parallaxes give newmass-sum values together with realistic total error-estimates. To getindividual masses at least for main-sequence systems, the mass-ratioshave been generally estimated from theoretical isochrones and observedmagnitude-differences. For some 25 short-period systems, however, trueastrometric mass-ratios have been determined through the observedorbital curvature in the 3-year Hipparcos observation interval. Thefinal result is an observed mass-luminosity relation' which falls closeto theoretical expectation, but with outliers' due to undetectedmultiplicity or to composition- and age-effects in the nonuniformnear-star sample. Based in part on observations collected with the ESAHipparcos astrometry satellite. Tables~ 1, 3, 4 and 6 are also availablein electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr~(130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html Inclination of the Orbital Planes of Visual BinariesThe inclination of the orbital planes of 78 visual binaries with knownorbits with respect to the galactic was examined. No double stargroupings were found having approximately equal orientation of theirorbital planes. Viewed the orbital plane north poles there are morebinary systems with counterclockwise motion than those moving clockwise. ICCD Speckle Observations of Binary Stars. XVII. Measurements During 1993-1995 From the Mount Wilson 2.5-M Telescope.Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1997AJ....114.1639H&db_key=AST ICCD Speckle Observations of Binary Stars. XVI. Measurements During 1982-1989 from the Perkins 1.8-M Telescope.Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1997AJ....114.1623F&db_key=AST Mesures de vitesses radiales. VIII. Accompagnement AU sol DU programme d'observation DU satellite HIPPARCOSWe publish 1879 radial velocities of stars distributed in 105 fields of4^{\circ} \times 4^{\circ}. We continue the PPO series \cite[(Fehrenbachet al. 1987;]{Feh87} \cite[Duflot et al. 1990, 1992 and 1995),]{Du90}using the Fehrenbach objective prism method. Table 1 only available inelectronic form at CDS via to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html ICCD Speckle Observations of Binary Stars. XII. Measurements During 1984-1986 From the Perkins 1.8 M TelescopeAbstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1996AJ....111..393A&db_key=AST Vitesses radiales. Catalogue WEB: Wilson Evans Batten. Subtittle: Radial velocities: The Wilson-Evans-Batten catalogue.We give a common version of the two catalogues of Mean Radial Velocitiesby Wilson (1963) and Evans (1978) to which we have added the catalogueof spectroscopic binary systems (Batten et al. 1989). For each star,when possible, we give: 1) an acronym to enter SIMBAD (Set ofIdentifications Measurements and Bibliography for Astronomical Data) ofthe CDS (Centre de Donnees Astronomiques de Strasbourg). 2) the numberHIC of the HIPPARCOS catalogue (Turon 1992). 3) the CCDM number(Catalogue des Composantes des etoiles Doubles et Multiples) byDommanget & Nys (1994). For the cluster stars, a precise study hasbeen done, on the identificator numbers. Numerous remarks point out theproblems we have had to deal with. Binary star speckle measurements during 1989-1993 from the SAO 6 M and 1 M telescopes in ZelenchukWe have continued to survey visual and interferometric binary stars withsignificant orbital motion by means of speckle method at the telescopesof the Special Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) in Zelenchuk. Here wepresent the lists of 267 speckle observations made with the 6 m and the1 m telescopes in the period May 1989-November 1993. All-sky Stromgren photometry of speckle binary starsAll-sky Stromgren photometric observations were obtained for 303 specklebinaries. Most stars were in the range of V = 5-8. These data, whencombined with ratios of intensities from the CHARA speckle photometryprogram, will allow the determination of photometric indices for theindividual components of binary stars with separations as small as 0.05arcsec. These photometric indices will complement the stellar massesfrom the speckle interferometry observations to provide a much improvedmass-luminosity relationship. ICCD speckle observations of binary stars. X - A further survey for duplicity among the bright starsSpeckle interferometric observations are reported for 1123 starsselected from the Yale Bright Star Catalogue (BSC) in a continuingeffort to detect new binaries among the bright stars. Thirty-twopreviously unresolved binaries have been detected, including companionsto Xi UMa and 15 S Mon. Measures of 107 previously resolved systems,many of which resulted from earlier speckle observations, are alsopresented. No evidence of duplicity within a specific (m, Delta-m, rho)window of detectability was found for 984 bright stars. Many of thesystems discovered earlier have shown significant orbital motions, andwe present preliminary orbital elements for six binaries. This efforthas resulted in the discovery of 75 new, bright binaries. We considersome aspects of the duplicity frequencies among the diverse spectral andluminosity classes represented in this sample. We anticipate that thecompletion of a speckle survey of the BSC would lead to the discovery ofat least 200 additional binary systems with angular separations mostlybelow 0.20 arcsec. Many of these will have periods of the order of onedecade and will be accessible to complementary radial velocity programsof enhanced precision. Optical Polarization of 1000 Stars Within 50-PARSECS from the SunAbstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1993A&AS..101..551L&db_key=AST Absolute quadrant determinations from speckle observations of binary starsVector-autocorrelation techniques are highly suited to extractingastrometric information from very large volumes of speckle data in nearreal time, but they inherently introduce a 180-deg ambiguity in theposition-angle measurement. This can be a problem in determining theorbital motions in binaries, so an algorithm is presented whichmaintains most of the simplicity of vector autocorrelation whileremoving the quadrant ambiguity. Results are provided fromabsolute-quadrant determinations for 66 binary star systems firstresolved by the long-term GSU/CHARA speckle program. The algorithm isused to eliminate the period ambiguity in the orbit of the close visualbinary ADS 9744. Photographic astrometry of binary and proper-motion stars. VIResults are reported from observations of 85 parallax stars, obtained onphotographic plates on over 5000 nights using the Sproul refractor atSwarthmore College Observatory. The trigonometric parallaxes determinedfrom the plates are presented in tables and briefly characterized. Alsoprovided are the calculated mass ratios for 13 binary stars in thesample. Multiplicity among solar type stars in the solar neighbourhood. I - CORAVEL radial velocity observations of 291 starsResults obtained on stellar radial velocity of 291 stars of spectraltypes FO to G9, measured with CORAVEL spectrometers at theHaute-Provence and la Silla Observatories, are discussed. The paperdescribes the observational procedure, reduction technique, andvelocity-data calibration and presents a list of individualradial-velocity measurements. Few histograms describing the survey arealso presented. Multiplicity among solar-type stars in the solar neighbourhood. II - Distribution of the orbital elements in an unbiased sampleAn unbiased sample of 164 primary G-dwarf stars in the solarneighborhood are studied with the aid of 4200 radial velocities obtainedduring almost 13 yrs. Several present-day distributions of the orbitalelements are derived. For systems with M(2)/M(1) above 0.1 in the nearbyG-dwarf sample, the following results are obtained: (1) The orbitalperiod distribution is unimodal and can be approximated by aGaussian-type relation with a median period of 180 yrs. (2) The shortbinaries are circularized up to orbital periods of about 11 d due to thetidal evolution effects - a result compatible with the mean age of theGalactic disk. (3) The tight binaries not affected by tidal effects (inthe range between 11 and 1000 d) may reflect the initial binaryformation process, and they have a mean eccentricity of 0.31 +/-0.04.For systems with M(2)/M(1) not greater than 0.1, the proportion of browndwarf companions among the IAU velocity standards is estimated at 10percent of the primaries, a value in good agreement with that found inthe G-dwarf sample. Observations of double stars and new pairs. XIVResults of a continuing survey of visual double stars are presented,including 4880 measurements made from February 1987 to November 1989.The positions in WDS format and Durchmusterung numbers are given for 194pairs first reported here. Micrometer measurements of 1142 doubles madewith the Swarthmore 61 cm refractor are presented. Magnitudes areestimated for some of the objects. Plate measurements, plateorientations, position angles, number of nights, and measured exposuresare given. Visual observations of 342 pairs obtained in May 1989 atCerro Tololo, mostly with the 1.0 m reflector, are reported. ICCD speckle observations of binary stars. V - Measurements during 1988-1989 from the Kitt Peak and the Cerro Tololo 4 M telescopesAbstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1990AJ.....99..965M&db_key=AST Orbits of 15 visual binariesThe paper presents the orbital elements of 15 visual binaries, computedover the 1987-1989 years after reobserving the objects by micrometer.Also presented are the ephemerides and the comparison with measures.Data presented include the results on three close red dwarf pairs. ICCD speckle observations of binary stars. IV - Measurements during 1986-1988 from the Kitt Peak 4 M telescopeOne thousand five hundred and fifty measurements of 1006 binary starsystems observed mostly during 1986 through mid-1988 by means of speckleinterferometry with the KPNO 4-m telescope are presented. Twenty-onesystems are directly resolved for the first time, including newcomponents to the cool supergiant Alpha Her A and the Pleiades shellstar Pleione. A continuing survey of The Bright Star Catalogue yieldedeight new binaries from 293 bright stars observed. Corrections tospeckle measures from the GSU/CHARA ICCD speckle camera previouslypublished are presented and discussed. ICCD speckle observations of binary stars. II - Measurements during 1982-1985 from the Kitt Peak 4 M telescopeThis paper represents the continuation of a systematic program of binarystar speckle interferometry initiated at the 4 m telescope on Kitt Peakin late 1975. Between 1975 and 1981, the observations were obtained witha photographic speckle camera, the data from which were reduced byoptical analog methods. In mid-1982, a new speckle camera employing anintensified charge-coupled device as the detector continued the programand necessitated the development of new digital procedures for reducingand analyzing speckle data. The camera and the data-processingtechniques are described herein. This paper presents 2780 newmeasurements of 1012 binary and multiple star systems, including thefirst direct resolution of 64 systems, for the interval 1982 through1985.
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