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 Spitzer IRS Spectroscopy of IRAS-discovered Debris DisksWe have obtained Spitzer Space Telescope Infrared Spectrograph (IRS)5.5-35 μm spectra of 59 main-sequence stars that possess IRAS 60μm excess. The spectra of five objects possess spectral features thatare well-modeled using micron-sized grains and silicates withcrystalline mass fractions 0%-80%, consistent with T Tauri and HerbigAeBe stars. With the exception of η Crv, these objects are youngwith ages <=50 Myr. Our fits require the presence of a cool blackbodycontinuum, Tgr=80-200 K, in addition to hot, amorphous, andcrystalline silicates, Tgr=290-600 K, suggesting thatmultiple parent body belts are present in some debris disks, analogousto the asteroid and Kuiper belts in our solar system. The spectra forthe majority of objects are featureless, suggesting that the emittinggrains probably have radii a>10 μm. We have modeled the excesscontinua using a continuous disk with a uniform surface densitydistribution, expected if Poynting-Robertson and stellar wind drag arethe dominant grain removal processes, and using a single-temperatureblackbody, expected if the dust is located in a narrow ring around thestar. The IRS spectra of many objects are better modeled with asingle-temperature blackbody, suggesting that the disks possess innerholes. The distribution of grain temperatures, based on our blackbodyfits, peaks at Tgr=110-120 K. Since the timescale for icesublimation of micron-sized grains with Tgr>110 K is afraction of a Myr, the lack of warmer material may be explained if thegrains are icy. If planets dynamically clear the central portions ofdebris disks, then the frequency of planets around other stars isprobably high. We estimate that the majority of debris disk systemspossess parent body masses, MPB<1 M⊕. Thelow inferred parent body masses suggest that planet formation is anefficient process.Based on observations with the NASA Spitzer Space Telescope, which isoperated by the California Institute of Technology for NASA. Decay of Planetary Debris DisksWe report new Spitzer 24 μm photometry of 76 main-sequence A-typestars. We combine these results with previously reported Spitzer 24μm data and 24 and 25 μm photometry from the Infrared SpaceObservatory and the Infrared Astronomy Satellite. The result is a sampleof 266 stars with mass close to 2.5 Msolar, all detected toat least the ~7 σ level relative to their photospheric emission.We culled ages for the entire sample from the literature and/orestimated them using the H-R diagram and isochrones; they range from 5to 850 Myr. We identified excess thermal emission using an internallyderived K-24 (or 25) μm photospheric color and then compared allstars in the sample to that color. Because we have excluded stars withstrong emission lines or extended emission (associated with nearbyinterstellar gas), these excesses are likely to be generated by debrisdisks. Younger stars in the sample exhibit excess thermal emission morefrequently and with higher fractional excess than do the older stars.However, as many as 50% of the younger stars do not show excessemission. The decline in the magnitude of excess emission, for thosestars that show it, has a roughly t0/time dependence, witht0~150 Myr. If anything, stars in binary systems (includingAlgol-type stars) and λ Boo stars show less excess emission thanthe other members of the sample. Our results indicate that (1) there issubstantial variety among debris disks, including that a significantnumber of stars emerge from the protoplanetary stage of evolution withlittle remaining disk in the 10-60 AU region and (2) in addition, it islikely that much of the dust we detect is generated episodically bycollisions of large planetesimals during the planet accretion end game,and that individual events often dominate the radiometric properties ofa debris system. This latter behavior agrees generally with what we knowabout the evolution of the solar system, and also with theoreticalmodels of planetary system formation. A photometric survey of stars with circumstellar materialWe present the result of a follow-up Strömgren photometric surveyof sixteen southern bright stars with circumstellar material, in orderto detect possible weak photometric variations. We found new variationsof the β~ Pictoris brightness from 1999 to 2002 with a weaklong-term variation of ~-0.8× 10-3 mag per year, overabout 3 years. These variations look similar to those seen from 1975 to1981 and from 1995 to 1998 (Nitschelm et al. 2000, A&AS, 145, 275).They can be due to differential occultation by dust inhomogeneitiestransiting the star through the years. We detected new periodicvariations for HD 256 (HR 10) with periods ranging from 0.35 day to 6.69days during several months. These variations may also be interpreted interms of variable obscuration due to structures in the circumstellardisk suspected to be surrounding this star. L-band (3.5 μm) IR-excess in massive star formation. I. 30 DoradusL-band data of 30 Doradus at 3.5 μm taken with SPIREX (South PoleInfrared Explorer) is presented. The photometry was combined with 2MASSJHK data at 1.25-2.2 μm. Colour-colour and colour-magnitude diagramsare constructed and used to determine the sources with infrared excess.These are interpreted as circumstellar disks, and enable the fraction ofsources with disks (the cluster disk fraction or CDF) to be determined.We find that ~42% of the sources detected at L-band in 30 Doradus havean IR-excess. Mid-Infrared Spectra of Dust Debris around Main-Sequence StarsWe report spectra obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope in theλ=14-35μm range of 19 nearby main-sequence stars with infraredexcesses. The six stars with strong dust emission show no recognizablespectral features, suggesting that the bulk of the emitting particleshave diameters larger than 10 μm. If the observed dust results fromcollisional grinding of larger solids, we infer minimum masses of theparent body population between 0.004 and 0.06 M⊕. Weestimate grain production rates of ~1010 g s-1around λ Boo and HR 1570; selective accretion of this matter mayhelp explain their peculiar surface abundances. There appear to be innertruncations in the dust clouds at 48, 11, 52, and 54 AU around HR 333,HR 506, HR 1082, and HR 3927, respectively.Based on observations with the NASA Spitzer Space Telescope, which isoperated by the California Institute of Technology for NASA. Some anomalies in the occurrence of debris discs around main-sequence A and G starsDebris discs consist of large dust grains that are generated bycollisions of comets or asteroids around main-sequence stars, and thequantity and distribution of debris may be used to detect the presenceof perturbing planets akin to Neptune. We use stellar and disc surveysto compare the material seen around A- and G-type main-sequence stars.Debris is detected much more commonly towards A stars, even when acomparison is made only with G stars of comparable age. Detection ratesare consistent with disc durations of ~0.5 Gyr, which may occur at anytime during the main sequence. The higher detection rate for A stars canresult from this duration being a larger fraction of the main-sequencelifetime, possibly boosted by a globally slightly larger disc mass thanfor the G-type counterparts. The disc mass range at any given age is afactor of at least ~100 and any systematic decline with time is slow,with a power law estimated to not be steeper than t-1/2.Comparison with models shows that dust can be expected as late as a fewGyr when perturbing planetesimals form slowly at large orbital radii.Currently, the Solar system has little dust because the radius of theKuiper Belt is small and hence the time-scale to produce planetesimalswas less than 1 Gyr. However, the apparently constant duration of ~0.5Gyr when dust is visible is not predicted by the models. Spectroscopy of SN 1987A at 0.9-2.4μm: days 1348-3158We present near-infrared spectroscopic observations of SN 1987A coveringthe period 1358 to 3158 d post explosion. This is the first time that IRspectra of a supernova have been obtained to such late epochs. Thespectra comprise emission from both the ejecta and the bright,ring-shaped circumstellar medium (CSM). The most prominent CSM emissionlines are recombination lines of H I He I, and forbidden lines of [SIII] and [Fe II]. The ejecta spectra include allowed lines of H I, He Iand Na I and forbidden lines of [Si I], [Fe I], [Fe II] and possibly [SI]. The intensity ratios and widths of the H I ejecta lines areconsistent with a low-temperature Case B recombination spectrum arisingfrom non-thermal ionization/excitation in an extended,adiabatically-cooled H envelope, as predicted by several authors. Theslow decline of the ejecta forbidden lines, especially those of [Si I],indicates that pure non-thermal excitation was taking place, drivenincreasingly by the decay of 44Ti. The ejecta iron exhibitsparticularly high velocities (4000-4500 km s-1), supportingscenarios where fast radioactive nickel is created and ejected justafter the core bounce. In addition, the ejecta lines continue to exhibitblueshifts with values ~-200 to -800 km s-1 to at least day2000. These blueshifts, which first appeared around day 600, probablyindicate that very dense concentrations of dust persist in the ejecta,although an alternative explanation of asymmetry in the excitationconditions is not ruled out. Rotational velocities of A-type stars in the northern hemisphere. II. Measurement of v sin iThis work is the second part of the set of measurements of v sin i forA-type stars, begun by Royer et al. (\cite{Ror_02a}). Spectra of 249 B8to F2-type stars brighter than V=7 have been collected at Observatoirede Haute-Provence (OHP). Fourier transforms of several line profiles inthe range 4200-4600 Å are used to derive v sin i from thefrequency of the first zero. Statistical analysis of the sampleindicates that measurement error mainly depends on v sin i and thisrelative error of the rotational velocity is found to be about 5% onaverage. The systematic shift with respect to standard values fromSlettebak et al. (\cite{Slk_75}), previously found in the first paper,is here confirmed. Comparisons with data from the literature agree withour findings: v sin i values from Slettebak et al. are underestimatedand the relation between both scales follows a linear law ensuremath vsin inew = 1.03 v sin iold+7.7. Finally, thesedata are combined with those from the previous paper (Royer et al.\cite{Ror_02a}), together with the catalogue of Abt & Morrell(\cite{AbtMol95}). The resulting sample includes some 2150 stars withhomogenized rotational velocities. Based on observations made atObservatoire de Haute Provence (CNRS), France. Tables \ref{results} and\ref{merging} are only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.125.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/393/897 The ISO-SWS post-helium atlas of near-infrared stellar spectraWe present an atlas of near-infrared spectra (2.36 mu m-4.1 mu m) of ~300 stars at moderate resolution (lambda /delta lambda ~ 1500-2000). Thespectra were recorded using the Short-Wavelength Spectrometer aboard theInfrared Space Observatory (ISO-SWS). The bulk of the observations wereperformed during a dedicated observation campaign after the liquidhelium depletion of the ISO satellite, the so-called post-heliumprogramme. This programme was aimed at extending the MK-classificationto the near-infrared. Therefore the programme covers a large range ofspectral types and luminosity classes. The 2.36 mu m-4.05 mu m region isa valuable spectral probe for both hot and cool stars. H I lines(Bracket, Pfund and Humphreys series), He I and He II lines, atomiclines and molecular lines (CO, H2O, NH, OH, SiO, HCN,C2H2, ...) are sensitive to temperature, gravityand/or the nature of the outer layers of the stellar atmosphere(outflows, hot circumstellar discs, etc.). Another objective of theprogramme was to construct a homogeneous dataset of near-infraredstellar spectra that can be used for population synthesis studies ofgalaxies. At near-infrared wavelengths these objects emit the integratedlight of all stars in the system. In this paper we present the datasetof post-helium spectra completed with observations obtained during thenominal operations of the ISO-SWS. We discuss the calibration of the SWSdata obtained after the liquid helium boil-off and the data reduction.We also give a first qualitative overview of how the spectral featuresin this wavelength range change with spectral type. The dataset isscrutinised in two papers on the quantitative classification ofnear-infrared spectra of early-type stars ({Lenorzer} et al.\cite{lenorzer:2002a}) and late-type stars (Vandenbussche et al., inprep). Based on observations with ISO, an ESA project with instrumentsfunded by ESA Members States (especially the PI countries France,Germany, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom) and with theparticipation of ISAS and NASA. The full atlas is available inelectronic form at www.edpsciences.org Table 1 is only available inelectronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr(130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?/A+A/390/1033 Rotational velocities of A-type stars. I. Measurement of v sin i in the southern hemisphereWithin the scope of a Key Programme determining fundamental parametersof stars observed by HIPPARCOS, spectra of 525 B8 to F2-type starsbrighter than V=8 have been collected at ESO. Fourier transforms ofseveral line profiles in the range 4200-4500 Å are used to derivev sin i from the frequency of the first zero. Statistical analysis ofthe sample indicates that measurement error is a function of v sin i andthis relative error of the rotational velocity is found to be about 6%on average. The results obtained are compared with data from theliterature. There is a systematic shift from standard values from\citet{Slk_75}, which are 10 to 12% lower than our findings. Comparisonswith other independent v sin i values tend to prove that those fromSlettebak et al. are underestimated. This effect is attributed to thepresence of binaries in the standard sample of Slettebak et al., and tothe model atmosphere they used. Based on observations made at theEuropean Southern Observatory (ESO), La Silla, Chile, in the frameworkof the Key Programme 5-004-43K. Table 4 is only available in electronicform at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.125.5)or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/381/105 Large-Scale Diffuse X-Ray Emission from the Large Magellanic CloudX-ray mosaics of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) taken with the ROSATPosition Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC) have revealed extensivediffuse X-ray emission, indicative of hot >=106 K gasassociated with this irregular galaxy on scales from ~10 to >=1000pc. We have selected regions of large-scale (d>=600 pc) diffuse X-rayemission, such as supergiant shells, the LMC Spur, and the LMC Bar, andexamined the physical conditions of the hot gas associated with them. Wefind that for these objects the plasma temperatures range from kT~0.15to 0.60 keV and the derived electron densities range fromne~0.005 to 0.03 cm-3. Furthermore, we haveexamined the fraction of diffuse X-ray emission from the LMC andcompared it to the total X-ray emission. We find that discrete sourcessuch as X-ray binaries and supernova remnants account for ~41% and ~21%of the X-ray emission from the LMC, respectively. In contrast, diffuseX-ray emission from the field and from supergiant shells account for~30% and ~6% of the total X-ray emission, respectively. Ages of A-Type Vega-like Stars from uvbyβ PhotometryWe have estimated the ages of a sample of A-type Vega-like stars byusing Strömgren uvbyβ photometric data and theoreticalevolutionary tracks. We find that 13% of these A stars have beenreported as Vega-like stars in the literature and that the ages of thissubset run the gamut from very young (50 Myr) to old (1 Gyr), with noobvious age difference compared to those of field A stars. We clearlyshow that the fractional IR luminosity decreases with the ages ofVega-like stars. MSX, 2MASS, and the LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD: A Combined Near- and Mid-Infrared ViewThe Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) has been observed by the MidcourseSpace Experiment (MSX) in the mid-infrared and the Two Micron All SkySurvey (2MASS) in the near-infrared. We have performed across-correlation of the 1806 MSX catalog sources and nearly 1.4 million2MASS cataloged point and extended sources and find 1664 matches. Usingthe available color information, we identify a number of stellarpopulations and nebulae, including main-sequence stars, giant stars, redsupergiants, carbon- and oxygen-rich asymptotic giant branch (AGB)stars, planetary nebulae, H II regions, and other dusty objects likelyassociated with early-type stars. A total of 731 of these sources haveno previous identification. We compile a listing of all objects, whichincludes photometry and astrometry. The 8.3 μm MSX sensitivity is thelimiting factor for object detection: only the brighter red objects,specifically the red supergiants, AGB stars, planetary nebulae, and H IIregions, are detected in the LMC. The remaining objects are likely inthe Galactic foreground. The spatial distribution of the infrared LMCsources may contribute to understanding stellar formation and evolutionand the overall galactic evolution. We demonstrate that a combined mid-and near-infrared photometric baseline provides a powerful means ofidentifying new objects in the LMC for future ground-based andspace-based follow-up observations. Catalogue of Apparent Diameters and Absolute Radii of Stars (CADARS) - Third edition - Comments and statisticsThe Catalogue, available at the Centre de Données Stellaires deStrasbourg, consists of 13 573 records concerning the results obtainedfrom different methods for 7778 stars, reported in the literature. Thefollowing data are listed for each star: identifications, apparentmagnitude, spectral type, apparent diameter in arcsec, absolute radiusin solar units, method of determination, reference, remarks. Commentsand statistics obtained from CADARS are given. The Catalogue isavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcar?J/A+A/367/521 Research Note Hipparcos photometry: The least variable starsThe data known as the Hipparcos Photometry obtained with the Hipparcossatellite have been investigated to find those stars which are leastvariable. Such stars are excellent candidates to serve as standards forphotometric systems. Their spectral types suggest in which parts of theHR diagrams stars are most constant. In some cases these values stronglyindicate that previous ground based studies claiming photometricvariability are incorrect or that the level of stellar activity haschanged. Table 2 is only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/367/297 The proper motions of fundamental stars. I. 1535 stars from the Basic FK5A direct combination of the positions given in the HIPPARCOS cataloguewith astrometric ground-based catalogues having epochs later than 1939allows us to obtain new proper motions for the 1535 stars of the BasicFK5. The results are presented as the catalogue Proper Motions ofFundamental Stars (PMFS), Part I. The median precision of the propermotions is 0.5 mas/year for mu alpha cos delta and 0.7mas/year for mu delta . The non-linear motions of thephotocentres of a few hundred astrometric binaries are separated intotheir linear and elliptic motions. Since the PMFS proper motions do notinclude the information given by the proper motions from othercatalogues (HIPPARCOS, FK5, FK6, etc.) this catalogue can be used as anindependent source of the proper motions of the fundamental stars.Catalogue (Table 3) is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strastg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/365/222 Unlocking the Keyhole: H2 and PAH emission from molecular clumps in the Keyhole NebulaTo better understand the environment surrounding CO emission clumps inthe Keyhole Nebula, we have made images of the region in H21-0 S(1) (2.122-μm) emission and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon(PAH) emission at 3.29μm. Our results show that the H2 andPAH emission regions are morphologically similar, existing as severalclumps, all of which correspond to CO emission clumps and dark opticalfeatures. The emission confirms the existence of photodissociationregions (PDRs) on the surface of the clumps. By comparing the velocityrange of the CO emission with the optical appearance of theH2 and PAH emission, we present a model of the Keyhole Nebulawhereby the most negative velocity clumps are in front of the ionizationregion, the clumps at intermediate velocities are in it and those whichhave the least negative velocities are at the far side. It may be thatthese clumps, which appear to have been swept up from molecular gas bythe stellar winds from ηCar, are now being overrun by the ionizationregion and forming PDRs on their surfaces. These clumps comprise thelast remnants of the ambient molecular cloud around η Car. A three-year Strömgren photometric survey of suspected beta Pictoris-like starsWe carried out a Strömgren photometric survey of thirteen southernbright stars, including beta Pictoris itself, during three years,d'Astrophysique de Paris, in order to detect possible weak photometricvariations. beta Pictoris presents a small long-term variation with achange of brightness by -2.1 10-3 mag per year, over abouttwo years from beginning of 1996, a situation relatively similar to theone about 18 years ago. Among the other stars, only HD 38392 presentsweak photometric variations with a period of 21.4 days, probably relatedto the star rotation period. The negative result concerning photometricvariations of all other stars suggests that those stars are actuallyreally stable and strengthens the reality of the variations discoveredin the case of beta Pictoris and HD 38392. Based on observationsobtained at the Danish 50 cm telescope (SAT) at ESO, La Silla, Chile. ROSAT HRI catalogue of X-ray sources in the LMC regionAll 543 pointed observations of the ROSAT High Resolution Imager (HRI)with exposure times higher than 50 s and performed between 1990 and 1998in a field of 10°\ x 10°\ covering the Large Magellanic Cloud(LMC) were analyzed. A catalogue was produced containing 397 X-raysources with their properties measured by the HRI. The list wascross-correlated with the ROSAT Position Sensitive Propotional Counter(PSPC) source catalogue presented by Haberl & Pietsch (1999) inorder to obtain the hardness ratios for the X-ray sources detected byboth instruments. 138 HRI sources are contained in the PSPC catalogue,259 sources are new detections. The spatial resolution of the HRI washigher than that of the PSPC and the source position could be determinedwith errors mostly smaller than 15'' which are dominated by systematicattitude errors. After cross-correlating the source catalogue with theSIMBAD data base and the TYCHO catalogue 94 HRI sources were identifiedwith known objects based on their positional coincidence and X-rayproperties. Whenever more accurate coordinates were given in cataloguesor literature for identified sources, the X-ray coordinates werecorrected and the systematic error of the X-ray position was reduced.For other sources observed simultaneously with an identified source thecoordinates were improved as well. In total the X-ray position of 254sources could be newly determined. The catalogue contains 39 foregroundstars, 24 supernova remnants (SNRs), five supersoft sources (SSSs), nineX-ray binaries (XBs), and nine AGN well known from literature. Anothereight sources were identified with known candidates for these sourceclasses. Additional 21 HRI sources are suggested in the present work ascandidates for SNR, X-ray binary in the LMC, or background AGN becauseof their extent, hardness ratios, X-ray to optical flux ratio, or fluxvariability. Table 4 is only and Tables 1--3 are also available inelectronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr(130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html Mass-loss rates and dust-to-gas ratios for obscured Asymptotic Giant Branch stars of different metallicitiesThe mass-loss rates and dust-to-gas ratios of obscured Asymptotic GiantBranch (AGB) stars are investigated for samples with different initialmetallicities: in the Small and Large Magellanic Clouds (SMC & LMC)and in the Milky Way. The properties of their circumstellar envelopescan be explained in a consistent way if, both for obscured M-type AGBstars and for obscured carbon stars, the total (gas+dust) mass-loss ratedot {M} depends only weakly on initial metallicity whilst thedust-to-gas ratio psi depends approximately linearly on initialmetallicity. This paper is based in part on data obtained at theSouth-African Astronomical Observatory. Sixth Catalogue of Fundamental Stars (FK6). Part I. Basic fundamental stars with direct solutionsThe FK6 is a suitable combination of the results of the HIPPARCOSastrometry satellite with ground-based data, measured over more than twocenturies and summarized in the FK5. Part I of the FK6 (abbreviatedFK6(I)) contains 878 basic fundamental stars with direct solutions. Suchdirect solutions are appropriate for single stars or for objects whichcan be treated like single stars. From the 878 stars in Part I, we haveselected 340 objects as "astrometrically excellent stars", since theirinstantaneous proper motions and mean (time-averaged) ones do not differsignificantly. Hence most of the astrometrically excellent stars arewell-behaving "single-star candidates" with good astrometric data. Thesestars are most suited for high-precision astrometry. On the other hand,199 of the stars in Part I are Δμ binaries in the sense ofWielen et al. (1999). Many of them are newly discovered probablebinaries with no other hitherto known indication of binarity. The FK6gives, besides the classical "single-star mode" solutions (SI mode),other solutions which take into account the fact that hidden astrometricbinaries among "apparently single-stars" introduce sizable "cosmicerrors" into the quasi-instantaneously measured HIPPARCOS proper motionsand positions. The FK6 gives in addition to the SI mode the "long-termprediction (LTP) mode" and the "short-term prediction (STP) mode". TheseLTP and STP modes are on average the most precise solutions forapparently single stars, depending on the epoch difference with respectto the HIPPARCOS epoch of about 1991. The typical mean error of anFK6(I) proper motion in the single-star mode is 0.35 mas/year. This isabout a factor of two better than the typical HIPPARCOS errors for thesestars of 0.67 mas/year. In the long-term prediction mode, in whichcosmic errors are taken into account, the FK6(I) proper motions have atypical mean error of 0.50 mas/year, which is by a factor of more than 4better than the corresponding error for the HIPPARCOS values of 2.21mas/year (cosmic errors included). A Second Catalog of Orbiting Astronomical Observatory 2 Filter Photometry: Ultraviolet Photometry of 614 StarsUltraviolet photometry from the Wisconsin Experiment Package on theOrbiting Astronomical Observatory 2 (OAO 2) is presented for 614 stars.Previously unpublished magnitudes from 12 filter bandpasses withwavelengths ranging from 1330 to 4250 Å have been placed on thewhite dwarf model atmosphere absolute flux scale. The fluxes wereconverted to magnitudes using V=0 for F(V)=3.46x10^-9 ergs cm^-2 s^-1Å^-1, or m_lambda=-2.5logF_lambda-21.15. This second catalogeffectively doubles the amount of OAO 2 photometry available in theliterature and includes many objects too bright to be observed withmodern space observatories. A ROSAT PSPC catalogue of X-ray sources in the LMC regionWe analyzed more than 200 ROSAT PSPC observations in a 10 by 10 degreefield centered on the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and performed between1990 and 1994 to derive a catalogue of X-ray sources. The list contains758 sources with their X-ray properties. From cross-correlations of thePSPC catalogue with the SIMBAD data base and literature searches we givelikely identifications for 144 X-ray sources based on positionalcoincidence, but taking into account X-ray properties like hardnessratios and source extent. 46 known sources are associated with supernovaremnants (SNRs) and candidates in the LMC, most of them already detectedby previous X-ray missions. Including the new candidates from\cite[Haberl & Pietsch (1999)]{HP99} based on variability studies ofthe sources in our PSPC catalogue, the number of X-ray binaries in theLMC increased to 17 and that of the supersoft sources (SSSs) to 9. Theremaining ~ 50% of the identified sources comprise mainly foregroundstars (up to 57) and background extragalactic objects (up to 15). Theoften distinguished X-ray properties of the different source types wereused for a first classification of new, unknown X-ray sources. Eight newPSPC sources are classified as SNRs from their hardness ratios and onepromising new SNR candidate with extended X-ray emission is foundfurther north than all known SNRs. Three soft X-ray sources havehardness ratios compatible to those of the known SSSs. A selection onhardness ratios and X-ray to optical flux ratio further suggests 27foreground stars and 3 AGN. Radial velocities of HIPPARCOS southern B8-F2 type starsRadial velocities have been determined for a sample of B8-F2 type starsobserved by the Hipparcos satellite. Observations were obtained withinthe framework of an ESO key-program. Radial velocities have beenmeasured using a cross-correlation method, the templates being a grid ofsynthetic spectra. The obtained precision depends on effectivetemperature and projected rotational velocity of the star as well as ona possible asymmetry of the correlation peak generally due to secondarycomponents. New spectroscopic binaries have been detected from theseasymmetries and the variability of the measured radial velocity.Simulations of binary and triple systems have been performed. Forbinaries our results have been compared with Hipparcos binary data.Adding the variable radial velocities, the minimum binary fraction hasbeen found 60% for physical systems. Radial velocities have beendetermined for 581 B8-F2 stars, 159 being new. Taking into accountpublished radial velocities, 39% south A-type stars with V magnitudelower than 7.5 have a radial velocity. Based on observations obtained atthe European Southern Observatory (ESO, La Silla, Chile) and on datafrom the ESA Hipparcos astrometry satellite.}\fnmsep \thanks{Tables 7, 8and 9 are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftpto cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html X-ray emission from A0-F6 spectral type starsWe use the ROSAT public data archive to study the X-ray emission of asample of supposedly single A0-F6 spectral type stars from the BrightStar Catalogue. We detected X-ray emission from 19 A- and 33 F-typestars. However, our results are not sufficient to associate withcertainty the X-ray emission to the A-type stars themselves, since theusual argument that it may originate from a binary companion cannot beexcluded. A spectral analysis was conducted for 14 sources (3 A and 11F), finding that for 12 of them a two temperature thermal plasma modelis needed to reproduce the observed spectra. The two temperatures arecentered at 0.13 and 0.54 keV, respectively. The values found for thehigher temperature are lower than that ones of X-ray selected singlelate-type stars. The X-ray luminosities are in the range LX ~10(28}-10({30)) erg s(-1) , with a distribution similar to that ofactive late-type stars. No correlation is found between LXand B-V color, V sin i and Lbol, while a positive correlationis found between the X-ray luminosity and the hardness ratio. Luminous carbon stars in the Magellanic CloudsWe present ground-based 3 mu m spectra of obscured Asymptotic GiantBranch (AGB) stars in the Magellanic Clouds (MCs). We identify thecarbon stars on the basis of the 3.1 mu m absorption by HCN and C_2H_2molecules. We show evidence for the existence of carbon stars up to thehighest AGB luminosities (M_bol=-7 mag, for a distance modulus to theLMC of 18.7 mag). This proves that Hot Bottom Burning (HBB) cannot, initself, prevent massive AGB stars from becoming carbon star beforeleaving the AGB. It also sets an upper limit to the distance modulus ofthe Large Magellanic Cloud of 18.8 mag. The equivalent width of theabsorption band decreases with redder (K-L) colour when the dustcontinuum emission becomes stronger than the photospheric emission.Carbon stars with similar (K-L) appear to have equally strong 3 mu mabsorption in the MCs and the Milky Way. We discuss the implications forthe carbon and nitrogen enrichment of the stellar photosphere of carbonstars. This paper is based on data obtained at the Cerro TololoInter-american Observatories, Chile. An ultraviolet, optical and infrared study of Herbig Ae/Be starsWe have selected a list of 45 Herbig Ae/Be-type candidates on the baseof their IRAS colors and their spectral types. We propose the presenceof a broad infrared excess as a defining criterion for these stars,rather than the detection of circumstellar nebulosity. In this way, ourselection also includes more evolved young stars, that are no longerembedded in their star-forming region. A few objects in our sample arewell-known Herbig Ae/Be stars, others are new. New optical andnear-infrared photometric observations, as well as ultraviolet ones, arepresented. The position of the objects in several color-color diagrams,as well as their de-reddened energy distributions, permit a reliableclassification. Three objects probably are binaries with a coolsecondary, 9 appear to be related to the Vega-type stars and 33 objectscan be classified as genuine Herbig Ae/Be stars. The majority of theHerbig Ae/Be stars have a dusty environment consisting of a distinct hotand cool component. These isolated Herbig Ae/Be stars suggest anevolution from embedded Herbig Ae/Be stars to beta Pictoris-likemain-sequence stars, an evolution in which planet formation may play animportant role. Based on observations obtained at the European SouthernObservatory, La Silla, Chile; and at the Swiss Telescope, La Silla,Chile; and at the Swiss Telescope, Hochalpine ForschungsstationJungfraujoch, Switzerland, and with the International UltravioletExplorer (IUE) The Angular Momentum of Main Sequence Stars and Its Relation to Stellar ActivityRotational velocities are reported for intermediate-mass main sequencestars it the field. The measurements are based on new, high S/N CCDspectra from the Coudé Feed Telescope of the Kitt Peak NationalObservatory. We analyze these rotation rates for a dependence on bothmass and age. We compare the average rotation speeds of the field starswith mean velocities for young stars in Orion, the Alpha Persei cluster,the Pleiades, and the Hyades. The average rotation speeds of stars moremassive than $\sim1.6$ \msun\experience little or no change during theevolutionary lifetimes of these stars on the zero age main sequence orwithin the main sequence band. Less massive stars in the range betwee n1.6\msun\ and 1.3\msun\ also show little decline in mean rotation ratewhile they are on the main sequence, and at most a factor of 2 decreasein velocity as they evolve off the main sequence. The {\it e}-foldingtime for the loss of angular momentum b y the latter group of stars isat least 1--2 billion years. This inferred characteristic time scale forspindown is far longer than the established rotational braking time forsolar-type stars with masses below $\sim1.3$ \msun. We conclude from acomparison of the trends in rotation with trends in chromospheric andcoronal activity that the overall decline in mean rotation speed alongthe main sequence, from $\sim2$ \msun\ down to $\sim1.3$ \msun, isimposed during the pre-main sequence phase of evolution, and that thispattern changes little thereafter while the star resides on the mainsequence. The magnetic activity implicated in the rotational spindown ofthe Sun and of similar stars during their main sequence lifetimes mus ttherefore play only a minor role in determining the rotation rates ofthe intermediate mass stars, either because a solar-like dynamo is weakor absent, or else the geometry of the magnetic field is appreciablyless effective in removing angular momentu m from these stars. (SECTION:Stars) Obscured AGB stars in the Magellanic Clouds. I. IRAS candidatesWe have selected 198 IRAS sources in the Large Magellanic Cloud, and 11in the Small Magellanic Cloud, which are the best candidates to bemass--loosing AGB stars (or possibly post--AGB stars). We used thecatalogues of \cite[Schwering \& Israel (1990)]{ref42} and\cite[Reid et al. (1990)]{ref36}. They are based on the IRAS pointedobservations and have lower detection limits than the Point SourceCatalogue. We also made cross-identifications between IRAS sources andoptical catalogues. Our resulting catalogue is divided in 7 tables.Table \ref{tab1} lists optically known red supergiants and AGB stars forwhich we found an IRAS counterpart (7 and 52 stars in the SMC and LMC,respectively). Table \ref{tab2} lists obscured'' (or cocoon'') AGBstars or late-type supergiants which have been identified as such inprevious works through their IRAS counterpart and JHKLM photometry (2SMC and 34 LMC sources; no optical counterparts). Table \ref{tab3} listsknown planetary nebulae with an IRAS counterpart (4 SMC and 19 LMC PNe).Table \ref{tab4} lists unidentified IRAS sources that we believe to begood AGB or post--AGB or PNe candidates (11 SMC and 198 LMC sources).Table~\ref{tab5} lists unidentified IRAS sources which could be any typeof object (23 SMC and 121 LMC sources). Table \ref{tab6} lists IRASsources associated with foreground stars (29 SMC and 135 LMC stars).Table \ref{tab7} lists ruled out IRAS sources associated with HIIregions, hot stars, etc... We show that the sample of IRAS AGB stars inthe Magellanic Clouds is very incomplete. Only AGB stars more luminousthan typically 10^4 L_\odot and with a mass-loss rate larger thantypically 5 10^{-6} M_\odot/yr could be detected by the IRAS satellite.As a consequence, one expects to find very few carbon stars in the IRASsample. We also expect that most AGB stars with intermediate mass--lossrates have not been discovered yet, neither in optical surveys, nor inthe IRAS survey. Tables 1 to 8 are also available in electronic form atthe CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html The Relation between Rotational Velocities and Spectral Peculiarities among A-Type StarsAbstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1995ApJS...99..135A&db_key=AST
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